The peripheral route is used when the message recipient has little or no interest in the subject and/or has a lesser ability to process the message. , It is widely acknowledged that effects of ads are not only limited to the information contained in the ad alone but are also a function of the different appeals used in the ads (like use celebrities or non-celebrities as endorsers). In order to reduce youth smoking by developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth, Flynn and his colleagues conducted a study in 2013, exploring the potential of smoking prevention messages on TV based on the ELM. She directed a study focusing on the persuasion effects of informational (anecdotal evidence) and testimonial messages (personal stories or experience) in text or audio modes. The elaboration likelihood model is similar to another theory of persuasion suggested by researchers, the heuristic-systematic model developed by Shelly Chaiken. In 2009, Angst and Agarwal published a research article, "Adoption of Electronic Health Records in the Presence of Privacy Concerns: the Elaboration Likelihood Model and Individual Persuasion". One of the most common reasons why an individual does not attend counseling is because they are worried about the falling into a stigma (being considered crazy, or having serious âissuesâ). Liking, following, etc.). By giving participants with negative thought topics, experiment results shows that media modalities, source credibility, and argument quality have significant interactions in attitudes change and elaboration mounts: Within the print mode, the interaction between source credibility and argument quality was the least, partly confirmed that print mode would generate systematic processing. The study of attitudes and persuasion began as the central focus of social psychology, featured in the work of psychologists Gordon Allport (1935) and Edward Alsworth Ross (1908). (1985).  For example, Choi and Salmon criticized Petty and Cacioppo's assumption that correct recall of a product led directly to high involvement. Examining the persuasive effect of metaphor use in psychotherapy: An experimental test of contributing factors. Drawing from cognitive dissonance theory, when people are presented with new information (a message) that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values, they will be motivated to eliminate the dissonance, in order to remain at peace with their own thoughts. (2013). Once he generates favorable thought along the central route, the ELM predicts he will accept the message and the result is enduring. The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is a dual process theory describing the change of attitudes. Not every decision is equally important, and using the peripheral route for some of the issues that donât actually matter as much (such as choosing between two very similar consumer products) can free up mental space to weigh the pros and cons more carefully when we face a bigger decision. McGraw-Hill: New York, 205-207. Petty and Cacioppo suggested that different empirical findings and theories on attitude persistence could be viewed as stressing one of two routes to persuasion which they presented in their elaboration likelihood model. theory identifying two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route. Theoretically, all of these could occur simultaneously. ", Another research directed by Boyce and Kuijer was focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters based on ELM. A famous study on reaction is conducted by Pennebaker and Sanders in 1976. Considering that the ELM was built upon previous empirical research and a diverse literature base to unify disparate ideas, the model is inherently descriptive because of the intuitive and conceptual assumptions underlying. The ELM posts that variables (credulity, happiness, etc.) Research has examined the ability of entertainment-education (E-E) programs to influence behavior across a variety of health and social issues. Core Texts. Many of the seminal texts describing narrative persuasion, which are cited under Key Foundations, provide the backbone to theoretical concepts developed much later.For example, Fisher 1987 was one of the first … When people process information centrally, the cognitive responses, or elaborations, will be much more relevant to the information, whereas when processing peripherally, the individual may rely on heuristics and other rules of thumb when elaborating on a message. Hopper, Elizabeth. "The elaboration likelihood model: current status and controversies.". A List Apart. Asian Journal Of Counselling, 20(1-2), 33-58. Whereas when elaboration likelihood was high, only the argument strength would manipulate affected attitudes.  By presenting experiment participants with Facebook posts and comments (civil or uncivil), they found that: civil comments will encourage more elaboration and therefore generate more willingness to engage in a discussion than uncivil comments; The more elaboration participants generate, the more they are willing to participant in the discussion.., The ELM has been studied with regard to its usefulness in politics and voting specifically. In addition, there were differences between the agents regarding their argument quality and peripheral cues.  This stigmaâwhich was prevalent 30 years ago, still exists today.[when?  Lord et al. The findings resulted that source credibility, the majority influence, and information quality has strong effect on the trust for users. ThoughtCo. However, if he uses the peripheral route to process the message, he will be likely to buy the car simply because he likes the color, or a famous idol on television âasksâ him to buy this car. found out that in contradistinction to adults, ELM doesn't hold true for the young. The idea is that when a person is presented with information, this person will process this information on a certain level of elaboration. , In 2014, J. ), Petty R. and Wegener D., Chaiken S. and Trope Y. Dissertation Abstracts International, 71, 3377. Lumping Versus Splitting in Attitude Change Theories", "The Evolution of Theory and Research in Social Psychology: From Single to Multiple Effect and Process Models of Persuasion", "The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current Status and Controversies", "Decision making by elaboration likelihood model- analysis journal and model", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elaboration_likelihood_model&oldid=1001488119, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2020, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. We remember the message as ideas and we will be … Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. (ed. Conversely, as argument scrutiny is increased, peripheral cues become relatively less important determinants of persuasion. Applying the ELM to narrative persuasion or influence proved difficult in explaining the mixed results. The two most influential factors that affect which processing route an individual uses are motivation (the desire to process the message; see Petty and Cacioppo, 1979) and ability (the capability for critical evaluation; see Petty, Wells and Brock, 1976).  Data on young customers' attitudes about a product were acquired through an online experiment with 278 college students, and two findings emerged after analysis. Dunbar et al.  Noticing this problem, Petty and Cacioppo developed the elaboration likelihood model as their attempt to account for the differential persistence of communication-induced attitude change. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in mediaâliterary interventions. The ELM was developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo in 1980.  They speculated that this was due to the need to cross the private-public boundary when interacting on social media gave people burdens. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. According to the model… They came up with four major research areas that have received most significant criticism:, The first critique concerns the model's initial development. , This area of critique basically lands on the nature of ELM being a dual-process model, which indicates that the receivers will rely on one of the routes (central or peripheral) to process messages and possibly change attitude and behaviour. However, researches has been done under three distinct conditions: high, low, and moderate. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world.  It was a product advertisement about a new disposable razor. If subjects are under conditions of moderate elaboration, variables might enhance or reduce the persuasiveness in an objective manner, or bialy motivate or inhibit subjects to generate a certain thought. What Is Socioemotional Selectivity Theory? , Molina and Jennings focused on whether civil and uncivil behaviors on Facebook serve as cues to encourage users' willingness to participant in a discussion. Rather, the key to the ELM is how any type of information will be used depending on central or peripheral routes, regardless of what that information is. Allport described attitudes as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology". Besides, nonpartisan articles would relatively generate more positive thoughts than partisan articles. Individuals' ability for elaboration is affected by distractions, their cognitive busyness (the extent to which their cognitive processes are engaged by multiple tasks), and their overall knowledge. This finding came through the study of voters in the 2004 and 2008 elections for President of the United States. The ELM holds that the specific role by which a variable operates is determined by the extent of elaboration. Persuasion is very much associated with our daily life. ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/elaboration-likelihood-model-4686036. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is a noteworthy theoretical framework of social cognition used, to analyze information processing. It will be first come, first served.  Nekmat et al. Given modern communication contexts, it is appropriate to question the model’s … When elaboration is lower, weâre more likely to be persuaded through the peripheral route. The elaboration likelihood model is a theory developed by Richard Petty and John Cacioppo in the 1970s and 1980s. They proposed that high involvement is likely to be the result of other variations, for example the sample population; and the weak/strong arguments in one study are likely to result in different involvement characteristics in another study. As an example of how the elaboration likelihood model works, think back to the âGot milk?â campaign of the 1990s, in which celebrities were pictured with milk mustaches. For example, in marketing research, advertising leads to a favorable brand attitude as long as the arguments are strong and tedium is not induced. The study used Agent-based social simulation. Being at the low end of the elaboration continuum, recipients do not examine the information as thoroughly. From the research, they found participants' attention (advertent/inadvertent) toward the images was manipulated.
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