[151], In September 1989, the Wall Street Journal's John Fialka disclosed that Kissinger took a direct economic interest in US-China relations in March 1989 with the establishment of China Ventures, Inc., a Delaware limited partnership, of which he was chairman of the board and chief executive officer. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest.[4]. [62], In June 1971, Kissinger supported Nixon's effort to ban the Pentagon Papers saying the "hemorrhage of state secrets" to the media was making diplomacy impossible. © 2021 TIME USA, LLC. [200] On October 6, 1972, Kissinger told Nixon twice that the terms of the Paris Peace Accords would probably destroy South Vietnam: "I also think that Thieu is right, that our terms will eventually destroy him. Although he possessed absolute authority and powers of arrest, Kissinger took care to avoid abuses against the local population by his command. In 1974, negotiations over a new settlement for the Panama Canal began, and they eventually led to the Torrijos-Carter Treaties and the handing over of the Canal to Panamanian control. [211] In February 1982, at the age of 58, Henry Kissinger underwent coronary bypass surgery. [124][125], On September 10, 2001, the family of Chilean general René Schneider filed a suit against Kissinger, accusing him of collaborating in arranging Schneider's kidnapping which resulted in his death. "[189], On April 3, 2020, Kissinger shared his diagnostic view of the COVID-19 pandemic, saying that it threatens the "liberal world order". Kissinger, Henry, 1923-Description. A practitioner of Realpolitik,[5] Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. That will never be accepted by Russia. Henry Kissinger, a noted American diplomat played an important and controversial role in the Vietnam War Early involvement, 1965–1968. Kissinger, bringing the weight of the United States, and corralling other relevant parties to put pressure on Rhodesia, hastened the end of minority-rule. By Maya Kosof f "[190] The insight, "Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac", is widely attributed to him, although Kissinger was paraphrasing Napoleon Bonaparte. In April 1969, Iraq came into conflict with Iran when Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi renounced the 1937 treaty governing the Shatt-al-Arab river. In September 1973, Nixon fired Rogers as Secretary of State and replaced him with Kissinger. Robinson noted that Kissinger had criticized the administration for invading with too few troops, for disbanding the Iraqi Army, and for mishandling relations with certain allies. Rambouillet is not a document that any Serb could have accepted. “Highlights of the AAP Sports Wire at 15:08 Aug 5, 2008,” AAP Sports News Wire (Sydney), August 5, 2008, MartinZhou, Martin, “Millions of Eyes on Clash of Titans,”. It was a terrible diplomatic document that should never have been presented in that form. In September 2001, relatives and survivors of General Rene Schneider (former head of the Chilean general staff) filed civil proceedings in Federal Court in Washington, DC, and, in April 2002, a petition for Kissinger's arrest was filed in the High Court in London by human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell,[193] citing the destruction of civilian populations and the environment in Indochina during the years 1969–75. 'All he got was stonewalling; he got nowhere.' As part two of the Harpers series hit the newsstands, Kissinger faced a woman he had spied on in her youth and whose friends and fellow journalists were killed, imprisoned and tortured … Henry A. Kissinger; April 16, 2015. [199] In his first meeting with Zhou Enlai in 1971, Kissinger "laid out in detail the settlement terms that would produce such a delayed defeat: total American withdrawal, return of all American POWs, and a ceasefire-in-place for '18 months or some period'", in the words of historian Ken Hughes. June 20, 1995 LONDON (AP) _ Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger received an honorary knighthood Tuesday from Queen Elizabeth II. [22] Kissinger was then reassigned to the Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC), where he became a CIC Special Agent holding the enlisted rank of sergeant. He stressed that the key is not a purely national effort but greater international cooperation. Henry Kissinger received his AB degree summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa in political science from Harvard College in 1950, where he lived in Adams House and studied under William Yandell Elliott. When he came into office in 1969, Kissinger favored a negotiating strategy under which the United States and North Vietnam would sign an armistice and agreed to pull their troops out of South Vietnam while the South Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were to agree to a coalition government. 'His last year was marked by increasing disillusionment and dismay, and he backed his staff on human rights right to the hilt. [7][124] According to historian and Kissinger biographer Niall Ferguson, however, accusing Kissinger alone of war crimes "requires a double standard" because "nearly all the secretaries of state ... and nearly all the presidents" have taken similar actions. An October 1987 investigative report in The Nation broke the story of how, in a June 1976 meeting in the Hotel Carrera in Santiago, Kissinger gave the military junta in neighboring Argentina the "green light" for their own clandestine repression against leftwing guerrillas and other dissidents, thousands of whom were kept in more than 400 secret concentration camps before they were executed. [97], In 1973, Kissinger did not feel that pressing the Soviet Union concerning the plight of Jews being persecuted there was in the interest of U.S. foreign policy. "[77], Historian Jeffrey Kimball developed the theory that Kissinger and the Nixon administration accepted a South Vietnamese collapse provided a face-saving decent interval passed between American withdrawal and defeat. [4][72] Tho rejected the award, telling Kissinger that peace had not been restored in South Vietnam. Kissinger initially supported the normalization of United States-Cuba relations, broken since 1961 (all U.S.–Cuban trade was blocked in February 1962, a few weeks after the exclusion of Cuba from the Organization of American States because of U.S. pressure). ", "Kissinger to the Argentine Generals in 1976: 'If There Are Things That Have To Be Done, You Should Do Them Quickly, "Kissinger Approved Argentinian 'Dirty War, https://web.archive.org/web/20180612142254/http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blogs/juan-de-onis, "Oral History of Harry W. Shlaudeman, Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training", "Kissinger hindered US effort to end mass killings in Argentina, according to files", "Ford, Kissinger and the Indonesian Invasion, 1975–76", "Henry Kissinger 'considered Cuba air strikes' in 1976", "Sáhara Occidental-Timor Oriental ¿Gemelos hacia la paz? [142], In February 1976, Kissinger considered launching air strikes against ports and military installations in Cuba, as well as deploying Marine battalions based at the US Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, in retaliation for Cuban President Fidel Castro's decision in late 1975 to send troops to Angola to help the newly independent nation fend off attacks from South Africa and right-wing guerrillas. Christopher Clary, "Tilting at windmills: The flawed US policy toward the 1971 Indo-Pakistani war. In 1952, while still a graduate student at Harvard, he served as a consultant to the director of the Psychological Strategy Board. [61] The South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu did not want the United States to withdraw from Vietnam, and out of frustration with him, Kissinger decided to begin secret peace talks with Tho in Paris parallel to the official talks that the South Vietnamese were unaware of. [88][89][90], Kissinger had also come under fire for private comments he made to Nixon during the Bangladesh–Pakistan War in which he described Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as a "bitch" and a "witch". [52] Out of concern to not be seen abandoning an ally, the United States tried to promote a compromise under which both Chinese regimes would be UN members, although Kissinger called it "an essentially doomed rearguard action". Family : Childhood : Advantaged (Affluent family) Family : Childhood : Family noted (Dad Henry Kissinger) Kissinger told Nixon that Bush was "too soft and not sophisticated" enough to properly represent the United States at the UN, and expressed no anger when the UN General Assembly voted to expel Taiwan and give China's seat on the UN Security Council to the People's Republic.[54]. [18], Following high school, Kissinger enrolled in the City College of New York, studying accounting. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with China, engaged in what became known as shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East to end the Yom Kippur War, and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War. "[136], Navasky later wrote in his book about being confronted by Kissinger, "'Tell me, Mr. Navasky,' [Kissinger] said in his famous guttural tones, 'how is it that a short article in a obscure journal such as yours about a conversation that was supposed to have taken place years ago about something that did or didn't happen in Argentina resulted in sixty people holding placards denouncing me a few months ago at the airport when I got off the plane in Copenhagen? [21], During the American advance into Germany, Kissinger, only a private, was put in charge of the administration of the city of Krefeld, owing to a lack of German speakers on the division's intelligence staff. The brother of former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger could use a little diplomacy himself these days. [186], When asked if he explicitly considered Russia's sovereignty over Crimea legitimate, Kissinger answered in the affirmative, reversing the position he took in his Washington Post op-ed. Bob Hill, who was Ambassador then in Buenos Aires, a very conservative Republican politician -- by no means liberal or anything of the kind, began to report quite effectively about what was going on, this slaughter of innocent civilians, supposedly innocent civilians -- this vicious war that they were conducting, underground war. Henry Kissinger married Ann Fleischer in 1949. In several articles of his and interviews that he gave during the Yugoslav wars, he criticized the United States' policies in Southeast Europe, among other things for the recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a sovereign state, which he described as a foolish act. Previously, Kissinger had helped secure his release from prison,[122] and had chosen to cancel a letter to Chile warning them against carrying out any political assassinations. '"[137], According to declassified state department files, Kissinger also attempted to thwart the Carter Administration's efforts to halt the mass killings by the 1976–83 military dictatorship. This service led in 2000 to his appointment as one of five IOC “honor members,” a category the organization described as granted to “eminent personalities from outside the IOC who have rendered particularly outstanding services to it.”[154], From 2000–2006, Kissinger served as chairman of the board of trustees of Eisenhower Fellowships. [83] In the second, more famous, Blood Telegram the word genocide was again used to describe the events, and further that with its continuing support for West Pakistan the US government had "evidenced [...] moral bankruptcy". Graebner, Norman A. [155], In November 2002, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to chair the newly established National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States to investigate the September 11 attacks. [32], His doctoral dissertation was titled Peace, Legitimacy, and the Equilibrium (A Study of the Statesmanship of Castlereagh and Metternich). Mathew Scott Tech visionary. [33] In his PhD dissertation, Kissinger first introduced the concept of "legitimacy",[34] which he defined as: "Legitimacy as used here should not be confused with justice. Although Kissinger assimilated quickly into American culture, he never lost his pronounced German accent, due to childhood shyness that made him hesitant to speak. They had two children, Elizabeth and David, and divorced in 1964. It means no more than an international agreement about the nature of workable arrangements and about the permissible aims and methods of foreign policy". [141] Accordingly, Suharto delayed the operation for one day. He further wrote in August 2017 that if the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps of Iran and its Shiite allies were allowed to fill the territorial vacuum left by a militarily defeated Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the region would be left with a land corridor extending from Iran to the Levant "which could mark the emergence of an Iranian radical empire. Nixon felt his administration had neglected relations with the Western European states in his first term and in September 1972 decided that if he was reelected that 1973 would be the "Year of Europe" as the United States would focus on relations with the states of the European Economic Community (EEC) which had emerged as a serious economic rival by 1970. [55] Kissinger said that the United States could not totally sever ties with Chiang, who had been an ally in World War II. [79] By November 1974, Kissinger lobbied Brezhnev to end Soviet military aid to North Vietnam. A US$75 million investment in a joint venture with the Communist Party government's primary commercial vehicle at the time, China International Trust & Investment Corporation (CITIC), was its purpose. [195][196][197][198] Critics on the right, such as Ray Takeyh, have faulted Kissinger for his role in the Nixon administration's opening to China and secret negotiations with North Vietnam. While still at Harvard, he had worked as a consultant on foreign policy to both the White House and State Department. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and his new bride return to Washington after a ten day honeymoon in Acapulco. Even during his time in office, the German Embassy informed him about the team's results every Monday morning. Kissinger joined the Army in World War II. According to Smith's autobiography, Kissinger told Smith of Mrs. Kissinger's admiration for him, but Smith stated that he thought Kissinger was asking him to sign Rhodesia's "death certificate". Elizabeth Holmes’ is a story that could happen only in America. [102], Kissinger promised the Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that the United States would replace its losses in equipment after the war, but sought initially to delay arm shipments to Israel, as he believed it would improve the odds of making peace along the lines of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242. Chancellors of the College of William & Mary, Chancellor of the College of William & Mary, Federation for American Immigration Reform, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, National Federation of Independent Business, invasion by Warsaw Pact troops of Czechoslovakia, United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, United States intervention in Chile § 1970 election, Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, deaths of nearly a quarter of the Timorese population, Center for Strategic and International Studies, United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George, United States Military Academy at West Point, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22, Does America Need a Foreign Policy? More than 1,600 international relations experts from across the political spectrum overwhelmingly rate Henry Kissinger… The Strategic objective should have been to see whether one can build Ukraine as a bridge between East and West, and whether one can do it as a kind of a joint effort. [145] Kissinger was aware in advance of the Moroccan plans for the invasion of the territory, materialized on 6 November 1975 in the so-called Green March.[145]. One does not expect the president to become that, but it's conceivable ..."[161] Kissinger also argued that Russian President Vladimir Putin wanted to weaken Hillary Clinton, not elect Donald Trump. [17], Kissinger spent his high school years in the Washington Heights section of Upper Manhattan as part of the German Jewish immigrant community that resided there at the time. [106], On November 7, 1973, Kissinger flew to Riyadh to meet King Faisal and to ask him to end the oil embargo in exchange for promising to be "even handed" in the Arab-Israeli dispute. "[205] During the Democratic Primary Debates, Clinton touted[206] Kissinger's praise for her record as Secretary of State. [68] As expected, Tho refused to consider any of the 69 amendments, and on December 13, 1972 left Paris for Hanoi. [104] Nixon instead sent some $2 billion worth. Finally on December 7 Indonesian forces invaded the former Portuguese colony. "[135], In a letter to The Nation editor Victor Navasky, protesting publication of the article, Kissinger claimed that: "At any rate, the notion of Hill as a passionate human rights advocate is news to all his former associates." [39] During the Republican primaries in 1968, Kissinger again served as the foreign policy adviser to Rockefeller and in July 1968 called Nixon "the most dangerous of all the men running to have as president". [153] In February 2000, then-president of Indonesia Abdurrahman Wahid appointed Kissinger as a political advisor. We're interested in this case.' [46] Thọ declined to accept the award[47] and Kissinger appeared deeply ambivalent about it - he donated his prize money to charity, did not attend the award ceremony, and later offered to return his prize medal. He also serves as an honorary advisor to the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. 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